a member of the gamma Proteobacteria family. This genera is commonly isolated
from cold environments, including soil, sea-ice , and the skin and gills of
fish . It has also been
associated with food spoilage and is often resistant to irradiation used for
. Psychrobacters have also been identified from a variety of human sources.
The sequenced strain, Psychrobacter 273-4
was isolated from a 20-40 thousand-year-old Siberian permafrost core.
The permafrost samples were obtained from the Kolyma-Indigirka lowland,
Siberia by David Gilichinsky (Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino,
is a small, non-motile coccoid rod often found in pairs. On TSA it
produces smooth, non-pigmented colonies. This strain was selected for
sequencing based on its excellent survival after exposure to a long-term
freeze, rapid growth at low temperatures and age of the permafrost
sediment from which it was cultured.
of the transcriptome, experiments can be designed to study microbial
survival under a variety of harsh conditions. The issue of long-term
survival is of interest in the field of astrobiology. Organisms that
survive such hostile environments may be used as models for understanding
cellular responses on astral bodies.
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et al., Diversity and association of Psychrophilic bacteria in
Antarctic sea ice. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 1997.
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and J.M. Shewan, The present status of some aspects of marine
microbiology. Advances in Marine Biology, 1964. 2: p. 133-169.
R., D.B. Rowley, and G.E. Shattuck, Factors affecting inactivation
of Moraxella- Acientobacter cells in an irradiation process. Applied
and Environmental Microbiology, 1980. 40: p. 480-485.
- Moss, C.W., et
al., Cultural and chemical characterization of CDC groups EO-2,
M-5 and M-6, Moraxella(Moraxella) species, Oligella urethralis, Acientobacter
sp. and Psychrobacter immobilis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology,
1988. 26: p. 484-492.
T., et al., Low temperature recovery strategies for the isolation
of bacteria from ancient permafrost sediments. Extremophiles,
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